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Table of Contents
 

1.INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Social Theory provides sophisticated searching across large numbers of primary documents, as well as table of contents access to a wide array of primary sources.

For novices who wish to get quick access to key documents, we recommend using the Tables of Contents and the Simple Search tools.

For scholars who wish to conduct in-depth searches we recommend using the Advanced Search tools.  The search value of some of the fields in the database will not become apparent until more documents are added.


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1.2 UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF THE DATABASE

There are three basic ways to use the database.

  • Tables of Contents -- Use these to see what's contained in the database. This is the best way to check whether an author, a source, a date is included. It's also the best way to examine what places, personal or historical events are in the database. To use this tool, simply click on the appropriate table of contents button on the navigation bar.
  • Find Tools -- The "FIND" tools let you search for specific authors or specific works in the database. Find Authors returns a list of all authors that match your specific criteria. Find Sources returns a list of all sources (works and manuscripts) in the database. The difference between the "FIND" tools and the "SEARCH" tools (explained next) is in the results they give. The "FIND" tools do not return documents, but rather lists of sources and authors. Note the difference between a source (a collection of documents) and the documents themselves (items within a source).
  • Search Tools -- The "SEARCH" tools let you analyze words and documents that meet your search criteria. The "SEARCH" tools return documents or bibliographic citations or both.

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1.3 SEARCH NAVIGATION BAR

The Search tools are divided into two separate categories, both of which search the texts in the database and return documents:

  • Simple Search - for novice users or those wishing to do a quick search. It provides basic searching.
  • Advanced Search - all fields, except specific letter fields.

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1.4 BROWSE NAVIGATION BAR

Browse Navigation Bar lets you move around the Tables of Contents tools. It works in the same way as the Search Tool bar. When using these tools, the Tables of Contents are expanded and the Full Text Searches are collapsed. You can toggle between the two by clicking Tables of Contents or Full-Text Search.

The Tables of Contents are divided into six separate categories, all of which provide quick access to specific documents within the database.

  • Authors - a list of every author in the database.
  • Sources - a complete list of every source (work or manuscripts) in the database.
  • Years - every document organized by year written.
  • Documents - a list of all documents in the database arranged by title.
  • Theories - a list of social theories represented by works and documents.
  • Subjects - a list of subject terms, with links to the documents pertaining to each term.
The brown color indicates which table of contents you are using. The brown color moves as you move from tool to tool. You may click on the mustard parts of the Navigation bar to move to the appropriate tool. 

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1.5 NOTES ON MARK-UP CONVENTIONS

Materials in the database have been transcribed using original spellings and grammar. In some documents spelling is inconsistent, even within a sentence.

For more information on mark-up conventions, contact the Editor.


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1.6 ABOUT THE SEARCH SOFTWARE

PhiloLogic, a suite of software developed by the ARTFL Project at the University of Chicago in collaboration with The University of Chicago Library's Electronic Text Services, provides sophisticated searching of a wide variety of large encoded databases on the World Wide Web. It is an easy to use, yet powerful, full-text search, retrieval, and reporting system for large multimedia databases (texts, images, sound) with the ability to handle complex text structures with extensive indexed metadata.

PhiloLogic in its simplest form serves as a document retrieval or look up mechanism whereby users can search a relational database to retrieve given documents and, in some implementations, portions of texts such as acts, scenes, articles, or head-words. This same document retrieval mechanism serves as the basis for defining a corpus in a full-text search. One can, for example, either retrieve all documents in a database written by women from 1935 through 1945 or one can search for words or phrases within database which fit those criteria. The typical PhiloLogic search is broken down into five distinct stages: 1) defining a corpus (i.e. limiting a search), 2) word expansion, 3) word index searching, 4) text extraction, and 5) link resolution and formatting (e.g., SGML to HTML conversion). In other words, after defining a corpus (or one may search an entire database), one can execute a single term, phrase or proximity search. By looking up indices of the word(s) in a relational database, PhiloLogic extracts blocks of text containing the search term(s) with links to larger blocks of text. These extracts are formatted to display on a Web browser and sometimes include links to images, sound recordings, other texts, or even other databases.

In addition to simple word and phrase searches, users can perform more sophisticated searches by using extended UNIX-style regular expressions for complex wildcard searching and, in some implementations, morphological and orthographic expansion. All of these mechanisms to expand words can be combined using Boolean operators such as OR (the vertical bar "|") and AND (a space) within a variety of searching contexts.

Its functions were originally designed for scholarly research in databases of literary, religious, philosophical, and historical collections of texts as well as important historical encyclopedias and dictionaries. PhiloLogic handles notes so as not to interfere with phrase searching. Users can easily search words with diacritics (either by specifying accents or ignoring them by typing in uppercase) and non-Romanized scripts. At present there are some fifty databases on the Web under PhiloLogic containing languages such as ancient Greek, Latin, Hindi, and Urdu as well as nearly all Western European languages. PhiloLogic can also be set up to recognize or ignore manuscript notations such as different brackets, which can indicate spurious text or editorial emendations. Because the software recognizes typical text structures as real data objects, it understands units, such as words, sentences, paragraphs, sections, and pages, permitting very flexible searching and retrieval of these textual objects. Other full-text engines on the market search for strings of characters. Rather than searching for two words within the same sentence or paragraph (intellectual units), other engines must search for two words within a certain number of characters regardless of sentence or paragraph. With PhiloLogic scholars always know where they are in a given text since pagination can be displayed along side other objects. Such a high degree of indexing can lead to decreases in speed, PhiloLogic indexing has been maximized such that it is still incredibly fast on the Web.

For more information on PhiloLogic, contact Catherine Mardikes, ETS Coordinator, The University of Chicago Library.

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2. FIND SOURCES AND FIND AUTHOR

2.1 FIND SOURCES

The Find Sources tool lets you find all the original works in the database that match your specific criteria. For example, you can find out all the sources published by Munsell's Sons or see whether a particular edition is included.

Practical Example: Find all sources that have slavery as a subject.

  • Click on Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "slavery" into the Subject field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all sources that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Sources see the section on Fields and their Descriptions below.

2.2 FIND AUTHORS

The Find Authors tool lets you find authors in the database that match your specific criteria. For example, you can find all the authors in the database that were born between 1850 and 1870.

Practical Example: Find all authors born between 1850 and 1870.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1850-1870" into the Year of Birth field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Authors see the section on Fields and their Descriptions below.

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3. SEARCHING

3.1 SEARCH OVERVIEW

There are two basic kinds of searching in the database.

  • Full-Text Searching enables you to do keyword searching for occurrences of words or phrases in the database.
  • Bibliographic Searching allows you to create a set of documents for subsequent full-text searching. Bibliographic searching is when you use descriptive fields to search.
The conventions used in each kind of searching are slightly different as shown below.

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3.2 FULL-TEXT SEARCHING

3.2.1 Full-Text Searching

Full-Text Searching is when you search for specific words or phrases that occur in the texts themselves.

PhiloLogic supports wildcard characters and Boolean (logical) operators, which are modeled on UNIX regular expressions to perform "pattern matching" in full-text searching. Pattern matching allows identification of a large number of words corresponding to a defined pattern. Wildcard characters can be useful, for example, in identifying cognates made obscure by affixes and vowel weakening, inconsistencies due to irregular orthography, and variations on account of word inflection as well as for discovering potential emendations for uncertain readings. The most commonly used regular expression operators (wildcard and Boolean) are listed below.

3.2.2 Wildcard Characters in Full-Text Searching

. (period):
matches any single character (e.g., gentlem.n will retrieve gentleman and gentlemen).
* (asterisk):
matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the beginning of a word (e.g., cigar* will match cigar, cigars, cigarette, etc.).
* (asterisk):
matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the end of a word (e.g., *habit will retrieve habit, cohabit, and inhabit), or in the middle (e.g., c.*eers matches compeers, cheers, and careers).
.? (period question mark):
matches the characters entered or the characters entered plus one more character in place of the question mark (e.g., hono.?r matches both honor and honour and cat.? matches cat and cats, but not cathedral, Catherine, etc.).
[a-z] (brackets):
matches a single character found in the specified range (e.g., [c-f]at will match cat, dat, eat, and fat) or any letters within the brackets (e.g., civili[zs]e will match both civilize and civilise).
E (capital letter):
matches all accented and non-accented forms (e.g., to search na vet regardless of accents type naIvetE).

Note: If you are using wildcard characters and would like to see a full list of the words matching your search-term, then run your search as a Frequency by Author search. The results page of a Frequency by Author search lists all the terms found in a database that match your search-term.

3.2.3 Wildcards and Boolean Operators in Full-Text Searching

  • The vertical line (|) is the OR operator (e.g., avarice|greed or holy ghost|spirit). These searches produce cases where either avarice or greed appear and where either holy ghost and holy spirit appear.

    Note: Phrases cannot be used as search terms in combination with the OR operator. Two separate searches must be run.


  • Space: serves as the AND operator in sentence and paragraph Proximity Searching (e.g., church state retrieve all cases where church and state appear in the same specified context; this is not the case in phrase searching). For example, AND in sentence proximity "green fields" finds such instances as "the fields were green " and "green trees and fields best of all on earth", whereas "green fields" in a phrase search only finds instances of the phrase "green fields".


  • These expressions can be combined for more sophisticated searches; for example, searching
    old|aged|ancient m.n|fellow*
    finds any of the three adjectives together with the two nouns man or fellow in the singular or plural (i.e., old OR aged OR ancient AND m.n OR fellow*). This search produces the adjective/noun combinations old man OR old men OR old fellow OR old fellows OR aged man OR aged men OR aged fellow OR aged fellows OR ancient man OR ancient men OR ancient fellow OR ancient fellows.

3.2.4 Punctuation and Full-Text Searching

  • Hyphens: Hyphens act as word separators. Thus, one should treat hyphenated expressions as separate words excluding the hyphen (e.g., if searching for all-powerful, type in all powerful).


  • Apostrophes: One must include apostrophes when searching words with apostrophes in them (e.g., only by typing God's will one find "God's"). In this database apostrophes do not act as word separators. Therefore contractions and elisions must be entered without spaces before or after the apostrophe.


  • Ampersands: The ampersand (&) is not a searchable character. Avoid Phrase Searches where an ampersand may be used as a conjunction and realize that &c must be entered as simply c.

3.2.5 Selecting a Search Option

PhiloLogic at this time offers two kinds of searches: "Single Term and Phrase Search," which is set up as the default; and "Proximity Searching in the Same Sentence or Paragraph." One may select and deselect a search option by clicking on the "radio" buttons.

For a fuller discussion see the PhiloLogic User Manual

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3.3 FIELD SEARCHING

3.3.1 Searching in Specific Fields

When entering search terms in bibliographic fields, as opposed to the full text search box, use the following Boolean operators: uppercase AND, OR, and NOT. One can use a NOT operator by itself (e.g., in the Type field enter: NOT editorial). It must be the first term in the box with no spaces preceding and it cannot be used with other Boolean operators

3.3.2 Advanced Field Searching with Regular Expression Operators

As in full text searching, one can use regular expression operators for more specialized searching. The caret sign (^) at the beginning of a word anchors the match at the beginning of the entry (e.g., ^child will find the personal event "Childbirth," but not "Adoption of Child). One can also use the verticle line (|) as a Boolean operator OR. With this operator one can exclude two terms from one's search (e.g., NOT adams|burr).

3.3.3 Punctuation and Spacing in Fielded Searching

When entering terms, punctuation and spacing must match exactly that in the fields. The following marks of punctuation produce a "Nothing found" message: ampersand (&), parentheses, question mark, and double quotes (""). If necessary for searching, replace the mark of punctuation with a period, which stand for any single character.

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4. FIELDS AND THEIR DESCRIPTIONS

4.1 LIST OF ALL FIELDS THAT CAN BE SEARCHED

Here is a summary table of all fields in the database, showing which tool they can be found on. Detailed descriptions can be found below.

  Find Authors Find Sources Simple Search Advanced Search
Author(s): x x x x
Author's Perspectives:       x
Books Discussed:       x
Document Title:     x x
Document Type:     x x
Editor or Translator:   x    
Events Discussed:       x
Gender: x   x x
Journal:   x    
Language of this Edition:   x   x
Nationality: x   x x
Organizational Affiliation(s): x     x
Organizations Discussed       x
Original Language:   x   x
People Discussed:       x
Person Code: x      
Place of Birth: x      
Place of Death: x      
Place(s) Discussed:       x
Publication Place:   x    
Publisher:   x    
Race: x     x
Religion: x     x
Search in Texts:       x
Social Theories: x
Source Title:   x x x
Source Type:   x    
Subject Headings:   x    
Work Code:   x    
Work Title:   x    
Year of Birth: x      
Year of Death: x      
Year of Publication (Source):   x    
Year Written:     x x
Years Discussed:       x
  Find Authors Find Sources Simple Search Advanced Search

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4.2 FIELD DESCRIPTIONS WITH SAMPLE SEARCHES

4.2.1 Author(s)

Description: This field indicates the name of the author of a document entry. It includes variant names, such as maiden name, professional penname, aliases, other married names and nicknames. The same official form of the name is used for display for all occurrences of that name, regardless of the form the author used at the time of writing.

How to use this field: Use this field to analyze word usage or materials by a single author or authors.  Names are entered surname, first name, and middle initial. This is a mandatory field.  It is used in all the Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all occurrences of "biology" in texts by Herbert Spencer.

  • Click on Simple Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "biology" into the Search in Texts box.
  • Enter "Spencer, Herbert" into the Author field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.

Note: To see a list of available Author terms click on the Terms button next to the Author field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

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4.2.2 Author's Perspectives

Description: This field indicates the five overarching frameworks used throughout the discipline of sociology, one or another of which refer to the theoretical perspective of an author. These five frameworks are Functionalism, Interactionism, Conflict, Feminism, and Postmodernism.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors writing from one or another theoretical perspective.  It is used in the Advanced Search screen.

Practical Example: Find all authors writing from the perspective of Functionalism

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Functionalism" into the Author's Perspectives box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.

Note: To see a list of available Author's Perspectives terms click on the Terms button next to the Author's Perspectives field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.3 Books Discussed

Description: This is a field consists of the titles of all books, journals, and art works discussed in documents in the database.

How to use this field: Use this field to find a specific works of literature and art discussed by document authors. It is used in the Advanced Search screen.  

Practical Example: Find all discussions of the Koran.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Koran"into the Books Discussed field.
  • Click on SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all documents in which authors discussed this work.

Note: To see a list of available Books Discussed terms click on the Terms button next to the Books Discussed field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.4 Document Title

Description:  The field contains a list of all available documents in the database.

How to use this field:  Enter the title you wish to search for into the Document Title field. 

Note: To see a list of available Document Title terms click on the Terms button next to the Document Title field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.5 Document Type

Description: This field allows you to restrict the kinds of documents you want to search and retrieve.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict a search to find specific types (i.e. speeches, chapters, letters, etc.) of documents.  It is used in the Simple Search and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all occurrences of the word "science" in a chapter.

  • Click on Simple Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "science" into the Search in Texts field.
  • Enter "chapter" into the Document Type field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.

Note: To see a list of available Document Type terms click on the Terms button next to the Document Type field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.6Editor or Translator

Description: This field describes the compiler, editor, translator or author of the source title. The name is entered surname, first name, followed by a comma, and the abbreviation of the function filled (i.e., ed., comp., tr.) if not the author.

How to use this field: This field allows users to find works translated or edited by specific individuals. Is is used in the Find Sources screen.

Practical Example: Find all sources translated by Harriet Martineau.

  • Click on Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Martineau"into the Editor or Translator field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.

Note: To see a list of available Editor or Translator terms click on the Terms button next to the Editor or Translator field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

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4.2.7 Events Discussed

Description: This field contains a list of historical events discussed in all documents in the database.

How to use this field:  Use this field to find historical events discussed by authors. It is used in the Advanced Search screen.

Practical Example: Find all authors who discussed the French Revolution.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "French Revolution" into the Events Discussed field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all documents discussing the French Revolution.

Note: To see a list of available Events Discussed terms click on the Terms button next to the Events Discussed field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.


4.2.8 Gender

Description: This field indicates the gender of the author.

How to use this field: It is useful for analyzing the differences in vocabulary in between men and women. It is used in the Find Authors, Simple Search, and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all women authors.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Select "Female" from the Gender drop-down box.
  • Click the SEARCH button.
  • The system will return of list of documents written by women.
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4.2.9 General Topics

Description: This field contains a list of topics and themes discussed in all documents in the database.

How to use this field:  Use this field to find chapters and sections of works where specific topics and themes are treated in a sustained and substantive way. It is used in the Advanced Search screen.

Practical Example: Find instances where the keyword “wife” is referenced in chapters and sections where authors are discussing the topic “gender roles.”

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter the keyword “wife" into the Search in Text field.
  • Go to the General Topics field and enter the topic “gender roles.”
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances of the keyword “wife” when and only when it occurs in sections indexed for the topic “gender roles.”

Note: To see a list of available General Topics terms click on the Terms button next to the General Topics field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.10 Journal

Description: This field contains a list of journal sources in the database.

How to use this field: Use this field to find journals that published works by authors in the database. It is used in the Find Sources screen.

Practical Example: Find all sources published in the journal "Kyk Over Al".
 

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Kyk Over Al"into the Journal field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system will respond with all authors that meet the criteria.

Note: To see a list of available Journal terms click on the Terms button next to the Journal field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.11 Language of this Edition

Description: This field is used to identify the languages of sources and documents as published in the database. For translations, this field applies to the language into which the work has been translated.

How to use this field: Use this field to find sources and documents published in a particular language. It is used in the Find Sources and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all sources published in English.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "English"into the Language of this Edition field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system will respond with all sources and documents that meet the criteria.

Note: To see a list of available Language of this Edition terms click on the Terms button next to the Language of this Edition field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.12 Nationality

Description: This field indicates the nationality of individuals in the database.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict your search to all materials written by an author of a particular nationality.  It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all sources written by Americans.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "United States" into the Nationality field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

Note: To see a list of available Nationality terms click on the Terms button next to the Nationality field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

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4.2.13 Organizational Affiliation(s)

Description:  This field indicates the organizational affiliations of authors.

How to use this field:  Use this field to search for authors or documents by authors affiliated with specific organizations.  It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all references to Tuskegee Institute.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation back
  • Enter "Tuskegee Institute"into the Organizational Affiliation(s) field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system will provide a list of documents written by authors affiliated with this organization.

Note: To see a list of available Organizational Affiliation(s) terms click on the Terms button next to the Organizational Affiliation(s) field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.14 Organizations Discussed

Description:  This field indicates the names of organizations discussed in texts.

How to use this field:  Use this field to search for a discussion about an organization within the text.  It is used in the Advanced Search screen.

Practical Example: Find all references to " University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA".

  • Click onAdvanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "University of Virginia" into the Organizational Subject field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system will provide a list of all significant discussions of the University of Virginia.

Note: To see a list of available Organizations Discussed terms click on the Terms button next to the Organizations Discussed field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.15 Original Language

Description: This field is used to identify the sources and documents in the database that were originally written in a particular language.

How to use this field: Use this field to find sources and documents written in a particular language. It is used in the Find Sources and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all sources written in German.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "German"into the Original Language field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system will respond with all sources that meet the criteria.

Note: To see a list of available Original Languageterms click on the Terms button next to the Original Language field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.16 People Discussed

Description:  This field contains names of individuals who have been significantly discussed in a document.

How to use this field:  Use this field to locate a discussion of a particular person in a source. It is used in the Advanced Search screen.

Practical Example: Find all discussions of Abraham Lincoln.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Lincoln, Abraham"into the People Discussed field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

Note: To see a list of available People Discussed terms click on the Terms button next to the People Discussed field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

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4.2.17 Person Code

Description: This is the mandatory, unique identifier for each person in the database. It is used in the Find Author screen.

How to use this field: This field allows you to go quickly to a specific entry in the entire database. Type in the person number exactly as it appears; the field is case sensitive.

4.2.18 Place of Birth

Description: This field indicates the author's location of birth, if known. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors born in a particular place or region. It is used in the Find Authors screen. Use "Not indicated" to find occurrences where we have been unable to determine the place of birth.

Practical Example: Find all authors born in England.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "England" into the Place of Birth field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

Note: To see a list of available Place of Birth terms click on the Terms button next to the Place of Birth field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.19 Place of Death

Description: This field indicates the author's location of death, if known. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors who died in a particular place or region. It is used in the Find Authors screen. Use "Not indicated" to find occurrences where we have been unable to determine the place of death.

Practical Example: Find all authors who died in New York.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "NY" into the Place of Death field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.
Note: To see a list of available Place of Death terms click on the Terms button next to the Place of Death field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.20 Places Discussed

Description: This field allows you to find references to a specific geographical location.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict your search to documents that contain significant discussions about a geographic location.

Practical Example: Find all discussions of Africa.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Africa" into the Places Discussed field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.
Note: To see a list of available Places Discussed terms click on the Terms button next to the Places Discussed field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

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4.2.21 Publication Place

Description: This field indicates where a source work was published.

How to use this field: Use this field to find out where specific sources were published. It is used in the Find Sources screen.

Practical Example: Find all sources that were published in New York.

  • Click on Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "New York"into the Publication Place field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

Note: To see a list of available Publication Place terms click on the Terms button next to the Publication Place field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.22 Publisher

Description: This field indicates the name of the publisher of the source work.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all source works by particular publisher. It is used in the Find Sources screen.

Practical Example: Find all sources that were published by Crisis Publishing Co.

  • Click on Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Crisis Publishing Co." into the Publisher field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.
Note: Publisher names are standardized and may vary from the form of the name that appears on the source's title page. To see a list of available Publisher terms click on the Terms button next to the Publisher field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

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4.2.23 Race

Description: This field indicates whether the author is American Indian, Asian, Black, Multiracial, Not Applicable, Not Indicated, or White.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all documents written by authors from a particular race or races. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Note: If you enter "Not Indicated" the database will respond with all documents where the race of the author is unknown.

4.2.24 Religion

Description: This field describes the religious background or beliefs of the author.

How to use this field: Use this field to analyze the vocabulary, behavior and experiences of authors with particular religious beliefs. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find materials discussed by Episcopalians.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Episcopalian" into the Religion field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.
Note: Terms in this field are standardized in an authority file. "Not Indicated" is used when we have been unable to ascertain the religion. "Christian" is used where a specific denomination is not known. To see a list of available Religion terms click on the Terms button next to the Religion field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

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4.2.25 Search in Texts

Description: This field allows you to search for a word or phrase used in the text.

How to use this field:  Use this field to see examples of a specific word or phrase used by an author. It is used in the Simple Search and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all mentions of the word "Abolitionists.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Abolitionists"into the Search Texts field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with all occurrences.

4.2.26 Social Theories

Description: A more specific term than theoretical perspectives, this concept refers to coherent systems of thought that seek both to interpret the causes of social structures and to explain and predict human social behavior. This field allows you to search for specific social theories discussed in a text.

How to use this field:  Use this field to see examples of a specific social theory discussed by an author. It is used in the Advanced Search screen.

Practical Example: Find all mentions of the social theory "Social Darwinism".

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Social Darwinism" into the Social Theories field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with all occurrences.

Note: To see a list of available Social Theories terms click on the Terms button next to the Social Theories field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

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4.2.27 Source Title

Description: This field allows you to search the titles of sources (book, journal article, etc.).

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict a search to a specific word in a source title. It is used in the Find Sources and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all sources that contain the word "society" in their titles.

  • Click on Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "society" into the Source Title field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.
Note: To see a list of available Source Titles terms click on the Terms button next to the Source Title field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.28 Source Type

Description: This field indicates the type of source (book, journal article, etc.).

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict a search to a specific type of source. It is used in the Find Sources screen.

Practical Example: Find all journal articles.

  • Click on Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Journal" into the Source Type field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.
Note: To see a list of available Source Type terms click on the Terms button next to the Source Type field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.29 Subject Headings

Description: This is a field consisting of all general terms defining the content of a source.

How to use this field: Use this field to find the general subject of a book or other source. It is used in the Find Sources screen.

Practical Example: Find all references to "philosophy"

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "philosophy" into the Subject Headings field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

Note: To see a list of available Subject Headings terms click on the Terms button next to the Subject Headings field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

4.2.30 Work Code

Description: This is the mandatory, unique identifier for each source in the database. It is used in the Find Sources screen and consists of the source work identifier code, e.g. S10019059.

How to use this field: This field allows you to go quickly to a specific entry in the entire database. Type in the source number exactly as it appears; the field is case sensitive.

Note: To see a list of available Work Codes click on the Terms button next to the Work Codes field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

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4.2.31 Year of Birth

Description: This field indicates the year of the author's birth, if known.  It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors born in a particular year or period. It is used in the Find Authors screen.

Note: Use 9999 to find occurrences where we have been unable to determine the year of birth.

Practical Example: Find all authors born during the Civil War.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1861-1865" into the Year of Birth field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

4.2.32 Year of Death

Description: This field indicates the year of the author's death, if known. It is an Optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors who died in a particular year or period. It is used in the Find Authors screen.

Note: To search for occurrences where we could not ascertain the year of death, key in 9999.

Practical Example: Find all authors who died in 1945.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1945" into the Year of Death field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.
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4.2.33 Year of Publication (Source)

Description: This field indicates the year of the source's publication. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find sources that were published in a particular year or range of years. It is used in the Find Sources screen.

Practical Example: Find all sources published between 1900-1925.

  • Click on Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Scroll Enter "1900-1925" into the Year of Publication field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

4.2.34 Year Written

Description: This field indicates the year in which a document was written.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict your searches to all documents written in a particular year or range of years. It is used in the Simple Search and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find me all speeches written during in 1865-1900.

  • Click on Simple Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1865-1900" into the Year Written field.
  • Enter "speech"into the Document Type field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

4.2.35 Years Discussed

Description: This field allows you to find references to a specific year or series of years.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict your searches to all documents discussing a particular year or series of years. It is used in the Advanced Search screen

Practical Example: Find me all discussions of the year 1776.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1776" into the Year Written field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

Note: To see a list of available Years Discussed terms click on the Terms button next to the Years Discussed field. Check the terms you want and then click the Paste Terms button to automatically paste them into the search form.

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5. RESULTS

5.1 SELECTING A RESULTS FORMAT At the head of any results format one finds the bibliographic criteria limiting ones search, the number of texts searched, the search term(s) entered, and the total number of occurrences of the search term(s) in the database. The number of occurrences displays at the bottom of the report if Philologic has not detected the number before generating the first 25 occurrences on the screen.  

5.2 OCCURRENCES WITH CONTEXT Occurrences with Context is the default results format option. In this format each occurrence is represented by a short citation consisting of the authors name and the title of the work followed by links to the occurrences within several levels of context such as page, paragraph, scene, act, chapter, body, or contents. Below the citation there is a passage of text consisting of some forty words on either side of the key word, which is shown in red in the example below. Clicking on the links takes one to that level of context at which point one finds links to the previous and next sections. Links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled.

 


Bibliographic criteria: none
Searching Entire Database for oppression.*.

This page contains the first 25 occurrences. Please follow the link(s) at the bottom of the page to see the rest of the occurrences your search found.


1. Anonymous Mid-Atlantic Quaker, fl. 1779. "From the Minutes of the Yearly Meeting of the Friends of Philadelphia and New Jersey, 1779"
[Page 366 | Paragraph | Section | Document]

and New Jersey, 1779 FROM THE MINUTES OF THE YEARLY MEETING OF THE FRIENDS OF PHILADELPHIA AND NEW JERSEY, 1779 "A tender Christian sympathy appears to be awakened in the minds of many who are not in religious profession with us, who have seriously considered the oppressions and disadvantages under which those people have long laboured; and whether a pious care extended to their offspring is not justly due from us to them, is a consideration worthy of our serious and deep attention; or if this obligation did not weightily lay upon us, can benevolent minds


2. Crummell, Alex. "Eulogium on the Life and Character of Thomas Clarkson, Esq. of England""
[Page 209 | Paragraph | Section | Document]


and denounced it in terms at once distinct, nervous, and emphatic. But his testimony, though given before a learned and religious body, did not satisfy the yearning spirit of this humane and large-hearted Divine. He was anxious to do yet more for the suffering victims of avarice and oppression. In the year 1785, being then Vice Chancellor of the University, he made use of another opportunity to demonstrate his repugnance to Slavery, and his steadfast adherence to the cause of Freedom. It devolved upon him, in virtue of his office, to announce two subjects for Latin


  • The citation indicates the original source of the material.
  • Page 366 - indicates the page where the occurrence was found. Pages, whenever possible, refer to the page of the print edition. Click on it to go to the page.
  • Paragraph - indicates the paragraph where the occurrence was found. Click on it to go to the Paragraph.
  • Section - indicates the Section where the occurrence was found. In the case of a letter this is usually the same as the Document, but in the case of a diary this is a day of the month. Click on it to go to it.
  • Document - indicates the entire document (in the case of a diary this is a month of entries). Click to view the whole document.

PhiloLogic displays as much text as needed to capture all words in a multi-term search and all search words are highlighted. The reference listed with the short citation is linked to the text. In clicking on the page number, one retrieves the full page with key words still highlighted. The same is true for paragraph and the three other levels of hierarchy. Links to the previous and next page, paragraph or levels respectively, if they exist, are provided.

Note: Remember that, when searching for two or more terms within the same paragraph, the context display expands the amount of text displayed to include all of the search terms in the paragraph. At times the text displayed in a proximity search to accommodate all the search terms may be several screens in length since some paragraph divisions in documents in some databases are very far apart.

In cases where a search finds more than 25 occurrences, PhiloLogic provides the first 25 occurrences with links at the bottom of the report to the remaining occurrences of the search in sets of one hundred. One may also retrieve a full list of occurrences which can be useful for down-loading or printing, but which may take some time to retrieve. Note: when results number over hundreds or thousands of occurrences, the report may not be complete when first starting to view results. In this case, one sees the message "The search is still in progress. 908 occurrences have been generated so far. (Please follow the link(s) below to check on the progress)". The server continues to append results until it has completed the entire report and, by clicking on any of the sets of one hundred, one can retrieve the full report.

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5.3 OCCURRENCES LINE-BY-LINE

The Line-by-Line display indicates the number of texts searched, the search term(s) entered in a defined corpus, and the total number of occurrences found. (The number of occurrences displays at the top of the report if PhiloLogic has detected the number before generating the first 25 occurrences. If not, the total number of occurrences displays at the bottom of the report.) Following this general information is a list of occurrences. Each occurrence is represented by a short citation consisting of abbreviations for the author's name and the title of the work with a reference to where the term(s) in question occur within the document. References (e.g. Bayley:D1266-14) are a concatenation of an Author abbreviation, the document identifier within the database, and the Page Number. The report is followed by the Results Bibliography, wherein you can find a full citation for the References in the report. Here is an example of the Line-by-Line display (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).


Bibliographic criteria: none
Searching Entire Database for oppression.
Your search found 1699 occurrences.

Context Display    Sorted by Author    Sorted by Source    Frequency by Year

This page contains the first 25 occurrences. Please follow the link(s) at the bottom of the page to see the rest of the occurrences your search found.

1. S8347-D007 (p. 209) g victims of avarice and oppression. In the year 1785, being the
2. S8347-D007 (p. 217) re seen the monuments of oppression. The whole western part of E
3. S13054-D015 (p. 77) say what you will of the oppression and suffering going on in En


Crummell, Alex, 1819-1898, Eulogium on the Life and Character of Thomas Clarkson, Esq. of England in Africa and America: Addresses and Discourses. New York, NY: Negro Universities Press, 1969, pp. N pag, [201]-267
[Bibliographic Details] [12-26-1846] S8347-D007

Douglass, Frederick, 1817(?)-1895, The Right to Criticize American Institutions in Frederick Douglass: Selected Speeches and Writings.. Foner, Philip S., ed. Chicago, IL: Lawrence Hill Books, 1999, pp. 75-82
[Bibliographic Details] [5-11-1847] S13054-D015

Douglass, Frederick, 1817(?)-1895, The Blood of the Slave on the Skirts of Northern People in Frederick Douglass: Selected Speeches and Writings.. Foner, Philip S., ed. Chicago, IL: Lawrence Hill Books, 1999, pp. 122-125
[Bibliographic Details] [11-17-1848] S13054-D025

A Line-by-Line Display differs from a Context Report in that it limits the text displayed to only a single line of text. The search term, which is highlighted, is centered in the line so that a user can quickly scan the results. At the bottom of the report one finds the Results Bibliography, which lists the full references for the short citations above. Unlike the Context report, a Line-by-Line Display only offers one level of linked context.

The user may toggle from the Line-by-Line Display to a Context Report or to the results sorted by Author and Sorted by Source.

In cases where a search finds more than 25 occurrences, PhiloLogic provides the first 25 occurrences with links at the bottom of the report to the remaining occurrences of the search in sets of one hundred. One may also retrieve a full list of occurrences which can be useful for down-loading or printing, but which may take some time to retrieve. Note: when results number over hundreds or thousands of occurrences, the report may not be complete when first starting to view results. In this case, one sees the message "The search is still in progress. [908] occurrences have been generated so far. (Please follow the link(s) below to check on the progress) ". The server continues to append results until it has completed the entire report and, by clicking on any of the sets of one hundred, one can retrieve the full report.

Note: When executing a "Proximity Search," especially with paragraph set as the searching parameter, it is best to avoid the Line-by-line format since all search terms are not likely to be in the single line of text displayed. The term that is located first in the paragraph is the one that is centered in the single line of text. Using the Context results format ensures that all terms are included in the display even if the paragraph should happen to run for several pages. One can switch from a Line-by-line format to a Context Report format at any time while viewing results and switch back. PhiloLogic takes the user to the same set of results being viewed at the time of the switch.

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6. REFINED SEARCH RESULTS

6.1 FREQUENCY BY AUTHOR, YEAR, OR SOURCE

Any definable corpus or search can be used in generating these reports. Unlike Context Display and Line-by-Line reports, these reports do not display text, only frequency statistics with links to occurrences displayed in the Context Display format. Note: the sets of occurrences linked to the frequency report are numbered in chronological order, not by frequency. In other words, clicking on the [Occurrences] link for a title at the top of the list could, for example, bring up occurrences numbered 21-28 instead of 1-8 because that title while ranked first in frequency is not first chronologically.

6.1.1 Frequency by Author

A Frequency by Author report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by author in descending order of frequency with individual titles listed with a link to the digital table of contents for each title and a link to the occurrences found within that title.

This report also shows what terms within a database ones search criteria are searching (for example, one can discover that entering the search term mine* in the database searches for all these unique terms below. See below for an example (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).


Bibliographic criteria: none
Searching Entire Database for mine.*.
Number of Unique Forms: 45
Expanded Word List: mine | mine' | mine's | mined | minefield | minefields | minenwerfers | miner | miner's | mineral | mineralconscious | minerally | mineralogical | mineralogists | mineralogy | minerals | minerities | miners | miners' | mines | minestrones | minet | mineur | mineworkers | miney | Mine | Mine's | Minelli | Minenwerfers | Mineola | Miner | Miner's | Mineral | Minerals | Minere | Miners | Miners' | Minerva | Minerve | Minervy | Mines | Mines' | Minetta | Mineworkers | Miney

Your search found 3174 occurrences.


Frequency by Author in descending numeric order with frequency in bold:

1. Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt, 1868-1963: 406
      93: Chapter 13: The African Laborer  [Occurrences]
      10: Chapter 8: Central Africa and The March of the Bantu  [Occurrences]
       9: Chapter 12: The Land in Africa  [Occurrences]
       8: A Decent World For All  [Occurrences]
       7: Interview of W.E.B. DuBois by William Ingersoll, May 5, 1960  [Occurrences]
       6: Chapter 8: I Go South  [Occurrences]
       6: Chapter 11: Andromeda  [Occurrences]
       6: Chapter 3: The Rape of Africa  [Occurrences]
       6: Chapter 15: Education in Africa  [Occurrences]


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6.1.2 Frequency by Year

Results can be sorted by using a Frequency by Year report. This report indicates how many times a word occurred in documents in a particular year.

A Frequency by Year report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by title in descending order of frequency with a link to the digital table of contents for each title and a link to the occurrences found within that title.

This report also shows what terms within a database ones search criteria are searching (for example, one can discover that entering the search term protest* in the database searches for these unique terms). See below for an example (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).

Bibliographic criteria: none
Searching Entire Database for protest.*.
Number of Unique Forms: 27
Expanded Word List: protest | protest's | protestant | protestantism | protestants | protestation | protestations | protested | protester | protester's | protesters | protesting | protestingly | protestings | protestor | protestor's | protestors | protests | Protest | Protestant | Protestantism | Protestants | Protestation | Protested | Protesters | Protesting | Protests

Your search found 3482 occurrences.

Context Display    Line by Line Display    Frequency by Author    Frequency by Source    Frequency by Year


Frequency by Year in descending numeric order:

1. 1975: 274
     5: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper Arrest, Beating of Latinos Sparks Rebellion in Elizabeth  [Occurrences]
     5: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper Double Chains  [Occurrences]
     4: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper IRA Memo  [Occurrences]
     4: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper 3,000 Rally for Chicano Demands at Washington U.  [Occurrences]
     4: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper Stanford Black Seniors Plan Anti-Moynihan Action  [Occurrences]
     4: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper 2,500 Chinese March to Protest NYPD Brutality  [Occurrences]
     4: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper Cha-Cha Jimenez Turns in Nominating Petitions  [Occurrences]
     4: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper 33 Women Shipped to Men's Prison Following N.C. Rebellion  [Occurrences]
     4: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper Black Man Killed in Terre Haute Prison  [Occurrences]
     3: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper Patuxent Inmates Demand End to Inhumane Lock-Ups: Protest Letter Written to Maryland Governor  [Occurrences]
     3: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper Lack of Medical Care Causes Brutalization at Menard and McAlester Prisons  [Occurrences]
     3: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper North Carolina Prison: Eyewitness Details Brutalization of Women Inmates  [Occurrences]

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6.1.3 FREQUENCY BY SOURCE

The Frequency by Source report is useful if one is curious how frequently an author uses term(s) in one work as compared to his/her other works or in his/her works as compared to others' works.

A Frequency by Source report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by title in descending order of frequency with a link to the digital table of contents for each title and a link to the occurrences found within that title.

This report also shows what terms within a database one's search criteria are searching (for example, one can discover that entering the search term racism* in the database searches for all these unique terms). See below for an example (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).


Bibliographic criteria: none
Searching Entire Database for racism*.
Number of Unique Forms: 6
Expanded Word List: racism | racism's | racisme | racismo | racisms | Racism

Your search found 2340 occurrences.

Context Display     Line by Line     Frequency by Author     Frequency by Source     Frequency by Year


Frequency by Source in descending numeric order:

1. The Black Panther: 477
     15: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper Pastor Smith Interviewed: Coalition Leaders Urge Swift Action on Racism Report  [Occurrences]
     14: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper Special Feature: The Atrocity of Education  [Occurrences]
      9: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper Final Police Racism Hearing Charged with Emotion  [Occurrences]
      9: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper Police Racism: Coalition Leader Call Mayor's Attack on Public Hearings Poor Mentality  [Occurrences]
      9: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper Oakland Council Hearing: Angry Community Details Police Racism  [Occurrences]
      8: Anonymous Author for the Black Panther Newspaper Elaine Brown, Atty. Jerry Paul Cheered by Enthusiastic Audience: Free JoAnne Little Rally Draws 500 to Learning Center  [Occurrences]

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6.2 NAVIGATING DOCUMENTS FROM WORD SEARCHES

In Context Display one finds several options for viewing more context around one's matched term(s). In addition to page and paragraph, you'll see section and document. These divisions reflect the logical organization of the document from smaller parts (paragraph) to larger parts (document). What each level represents depends upon the text itself.

Any part of any level may be selected by simply clicking on it. Once a user goes to a second level of context, he/she will find the search term(s) still highlighted. One may also find the next and previous sections for each level if one should wish to "flip through" the document by sections (provided that a next or previous section exists for a given level).

Notes: In PhiloLogic notes never interfere when searching the text to which they refer. Note references are linked to notes and occurrences in text from notes are linked to page references. Note and page references can be found on any level of context (e.g., Page, Paragraph, Section, Document), but not from a first-level results screen.

Images: Images are displayed as both inline images and linked to images once the user pulls up any level of context (e.g., Page, Paragraph, Section, Document), but not from a first-level results screen.

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